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Piastowie a Rzesza w latach 937/939-1138



Historia Niemiec w latach 843-1137

Biskupstwo w Kołobrzegu nie istniało

Emeryk, syn Stefana (fragment pracy: Piastowie a Rzesza, tom III, cz. 2).

O rzekomej wyprawie Władysława Hermana na Pomorze wschodnie (fragment książki Piastowie a Rzesza, tom III, cz. 2)

Spis treści Piastowie a Rzesza

Genealogia Piastów

Królowa Zofia (Arete) Dukaina, żona Bolesława Largusa (?); wersja robocza, fragment pracy Piastowie a Rzesza t. III c. 2

Otton Kazimierowic - nowe oblicze historii państwa piastowskiego

Historia Niemiec w latach 843-1137, część pierwsza Otton II, król Niemiec i cesarz. Indeks osobowy

Abstract (fragments) of:
The Piast dynasty vs (Holy) Roman Empire 937/939-1138 A.D.


Part One
Frankish Reich. The Kingdom of the East Franks. Carolingian Empire-Aachen state.

1. Political situation of the Reich in the 9th and 10th centuries. Factors determining social relations of the High Middle Ages

1. Secular power over Western Europe at the turn of the 8th and 9th centuries. The Treaty of Verdun

The Treaty of Verdun signed in 843 put a formal end to the existence of the unified empire of the Franks. Three other organizations headed by the descendants of Charlemagne emerged giving rise to France, Italy and Germany. The principle of primogeniture, in case of the empire, was not applied. A significant influence over the partition of the Frankish Reich had the cultural-civilization differences - particularistic tribal interests.

2. Rise of the Frankish Reich. Foundations of political doctrine of the Charlemagne's Empire and Christianity.

Charles came to power being a descendant of majordomo- chancellors and military leaders of the Frankish kings. The reign of royal family gradually consolidated against the direct threat from the followers of Allah. Religious symbolism in the form of relics permanently established itself in the minds of Frankish rulers. The invention of a steal plough taken from the Arabs quite radically changed the economic system of Transalpine Gaul. There was a demographic boom within the territory of modern France. The division between Frankish-Alemannic tribes residing in Gaul and those living in Bavaria was becoming more and more clear. The impact of Christianity on the restoration of the state organism. Charlemagne's achievements during war and peace.

The issue of the royal towns existence. They were divided into palas (palatines) and fortresses. The structure of power. Marcas and their significance. The relation between Charlemagne and the papacy. The Synod of Frankfurt am Main in 794.

3.The papacy in the 8th and 9th centuries. Empire concepts of Western Christians.

1.The papacy and its relations with the Kingdom of Franks

1.Ideology of the Papal State precedes its creation

Preliminary issues

Latifundia versus small landowners. Responsibilities born by the citizens of Rome in contrary to non-citizens. The deployment of the legions in Italy after crossing the Rubicon (49 BC). Conflict between west and east of the empire regarding the exercise of power. The concept of reconstruction of the Roman empire in its previous shape collapsed.

The development of Christian ideology after it had become an official faith. The influence boundaries between East and West. The significance of a monogamous marriage and the state. Saint Augustine doctrine paved the foundations of the entire Christ church views for hundreds of years. Clovis I (circa 464/467-511) as a creator of the united Kingdom of Franks. The dynasty of Merovingians until 751.

Western versus Eastern ideology of post-imperial power

An ideology of caesaropapism and its stages of development. A new trend called royal theocracy. Caesaropapism suffered an ideological defeat in the face of cenobitic monasticism. The seizure of power by majordomo of Frankish kings from the Merovingians. The Treaty of Ponthion in 754. Assembly in the royal residency of Quierzy-sur-Oise. The issues of promises called Peppin's donation and the creation of the Papal State (patrimonium sancti Petri).

A doctrine called Pax Romana Christiana (peace among the Roman Christians) and later Pax Christiana (peace among the Christians). The fall of the imperial senate in Western Europe. The document called Constantine's donation (donatio Constantini), stating the ideology of papal-caesarism. Ottonian privilege (privilegium Ottonianum) called Otto's donation.

1.3.1.2. The papacy cooperation with the kingdom and empire of Franks regarding conquests. The first model – annexation or tributary relationship

The military doctrines and the collapse of the Roman empire. The foundations of so-called military empire. Charlemagne's manifest of neutrality towards Roman affairs and search for ideological support of his Transalpine countries conquest policy. The ideological basics of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) empire. The Eastern Church divided by so-called Moechian schism. Charlemagne proclaimed himself a Roman emperor. Common ground of the agreement between Frankish State and Byzantium.

The ideology of recreating Imperium Romanum based on the Christian doctrine. The concept of personal union. Charlemagne invaded the Czech Slavs (805/806). Charlemagne's policy of the Latin Church structures development. Charlemagne implemented the imperial doctrine – the aspect of that undertaking. In 812 Charlemagne resigned as the Roman emperor. The agreement between Charlemagne and Byzantium - Pax Nicephori. The Treaty of Aachen in 812. The beginning of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) empire. The doctrines of the Saxon empire. Marches as symbols and tools of the dependence policy implementation.

1.3.1.3. The papacy cooperation with the kingdom and empire of Franks regarding the expansion of influence. Islam and Christian doctrine. The second model of the Christian world expansion – Satelic states. Great Moravia

The Order of Saint Benedict became involved in the development of a new tool of Christianisation. The concept of violent conversion. The Benedictine's reform and the crisis of Frankish State. Scholasticism and the Piasts. Scholasticism doctrine. The achievements of the Carolingian Renaissance. The monasticism doctrine in a Benedictine variation. Muslims created the ideology of jihad – constant work, copied by the Benedictines in 815. The creation of Great Moravia

The treaty of Verdun (843) and clash of doctrines:
- ideology of imperial centralism,
- ideology of the apostolic mission of Christianity as the one representing the papal influences,
- ideology of regionalism,
- created on that basis the beginnings of ideology of the nation-state.

The birth the open model of Christianisation collaboration in the second half of the 9th century. A treaty with Zwentibald drew up in 874 in Forchheim opened new face of interaction. The treaty sealed the creation of Great Moravia.

The wars with the Bulgarians forced the political changes within Great Moravia. Frankish bishops (866) in Bulgaria were replaced with the Latin bishops. The Council of Constantinople IV held between 869-870 included Bulgaria within the structure of the Eastern Church.

Christianisation mission by Byzantium over Pannonian Slavs. The concept of Slavic peoples – giving them limited political independence in the name of promoting Christian faith. Christianisation mission by Adalbert, alas Wojciech. The beginning of Slavs Christianisation by Cyril and Methodius (863).

2.Concepts of Western Christians empire. Elements of state doctrine
1.3.2.1. Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) empire


Charlemagne successors were on favour of limited empire - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) empire. Saxons eventually linked up with one particular Saint, while Franks remained in the direction of divine support per saldo or generally understood Providence of God.

The Germanic peoples began to record their legislation between the 5th and 8th centuries and thus a number of particular collections was created for which a common name „Leges barbarorum” was adopted.

The concept of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) empire in main doctrinal outline implemented eschatological legal-constitutional concepts arising from Saint Augustine's philosophy.

Legal-constitutional system of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) empire presented in the works of scholastics. Two historical periods of Aachen State – until the moment of Charlemagne coronation as an emperor – as the first period and the second one after the years 953/959 when until the death of Otto III it is possible to refer to it as Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) empire.

Lorraine vs Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) empire. Electorat Palatinate. In 920 Gilbert proclaimed himself prince/duke of Lorraine and it is the moment of creating of an independent duchy under the auspices of Germany. There was a dynastic dispute between Matilda of Ringelheim and her son Henry I and Otto I – Fowler's first-born son (Henry's elder brother).

Otto I called the Great was proclaimed king of Germany – it is the beginning of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) empire.

Conrad the Red took power over Lorraine. In those circumstances the title of duke of Lorraine since 954 belonged to Otto I's brother – Saint Bruno from Cologne. In the year 959 and 1044 further divisions of the domains were carried out.

Imperium versus dominium.
The definition of dominium in the context of exercising power by Otto I. The importance of the Synod of Ingelheim in 948.
Imperium and regnum.
The definition of regnum in the context of exercising power and the structure of the royal court officials.

1.3.2.2. Further fortunes of the two concepts of the Western Christians empire


Charlemagne united a number of geographical regions through military and diplomatic means. In the year 955 Otto I the Great was proclaimed the emperor. The coronation by pope which took place in 962 marked the beginnings of the absolutism doctrine. The cult of Saint Vitus versus the cult of Saint Maurice. The cult of Saint Vitus as an intellectual counterproposal of the Western Christian World. The idea of the Roman empire returns once more. Otto III in the year 1000 having brought patrician Boleslav Chrobry to a high rank joined another province to his territory. In the year 1000 Otto III united the entire Western Christianity and had trieyd to unit with Eastern Christianity.

1.3.3. Situation of the papacy on the Italian Peninsula in the 9th and 10th centuries


Constitutio Romana. The attempts to regulate the influence of the Frankish emperors on the papacy on the basis of the then legislation. The doctrine of the separation of secular and spiritual power was created in Rome as a doctrine of the papacy dependence on indigenous patrician houses. The years between 904-964 regarding pontificates of the then popes are often referred to as Pornocracy. Both the papal throne as well as the imperial office lost their authority. In the year 885 in Rome a self-election of pope was made. Four centres of power tended to take power over the entire land of Italy. The crown of Italy race and the noblemen impact on popes election. Alberic II laid foundations for the titular doctrine of the western empire.

The Roman popes almost proclaimed themselves as Roman emperors. The struggle for power over Rome 962 – 972. Otto I (961) called to help Rome. The city wa sthe place where the authority ideology was created. The beginnings of the papal empire ideology, that is, Caesaropapism.

4.The system of social control in the feudal era

1.Fief relation

1.4.1.1. Legal structure of fief relation

1.General issues. The components of fief relation and their analysis. The principles of medieval law and their collision.


The fief relation as the basis of the social relationships. The system of social control was present in the area of the entire Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) empire. The reasons for the decreased importance of the money role within economic circulation. The graduation of fief relations. The development of the fief relation.

The principle of law personality versus the principle of territoriality. The easement right – different from the fief right. The symbol of the fief relation. Fief homage and a real act.

1.4.1.1.2. Fief relation as a development form of the institutions of antient Roman law


Preliminary issues. Factors. The fief relation of private law and the fief relation of public law. The 8th century is the one when the fief relation was eventually and strongly took shape. Feudalism as a economic-political-legal doctrine of the Middle Ages. Directions of the legal analysis of the fief relation. The fief relation as a development form of the Roman contractual law. Contracts and four types of operations determining their conclusion. Stipulation and immunization privilege. Pacts – their development and division. The fief relation as a development form of the Roman family law. Other issues. The essence of the fief relation.

Actual execution of fief relation


Positive and negative elements of the fief relation. Economic thread.

The impact of population growth on the feudal system. The increase of iron volume weight in the economic circulation of Western Europe between the 8th and 10th centuries. The barriers of the development acceleration. The change of the monetary system in Europe. The fief system forced the search for the new way of restoring equivalence.

1.4.1.3. Termination of fief relation


The reasons for the fief relation cessation. Vassal's withdrawal from the fief relation. The recognition of the fief relation by vassals as being defectively executed. A vassal opposition to a senior. The death of a senior versus termination of the fief relation. The inclusion of excommunication.

2.The fief relation vs law of nations


The oldest case of paying homage within international affairs dates back to 757 in Compiegne. Homage within inter-tribal relations during the reign of Louis the Pious. The birth of the law of nations, currently called the international law.

3.Summary of the fief relation issues


The fief relations throughout the ages. The vassal system in Europe. The importance of the Capitulary of Quierzy from 877 as well as other documents regualting the fief relation.

4.Other legal relations ius gentium of law of the High Middle Ages


Slaves. Peasants. Monks. Free people. The formulary system and procedural customs. Saxon legislation. A late Roman process was developed which in its so-called formulary variety survived until the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries.

2.Tribute as an element of fief relation. Tithe


The basic functions and forms of tribute as well as its calculation. There was a possibility of periodic tribute paying exemption or permanent release from paying it. The size of population in Kuyavia and Greater Poland at the turn of the 10th and 11th centuries. Tithe.
3.The king's institution as an element of the fief relation and the doctrine of faith

King as being anointed by God. The idea of exercising the supreme power on the principles of the conditional subordination. The cases when king was not a real king, but sham or phony. The office of vice-king. The payment of Peter's Pence. The Slavic kings in the 10th and 11th centuries and their subordination to the emperor. The position of Mesco I and II versus the imperial authority. The conflicts arising on the basis of differently understood fief relation and the privilege of being a king. The position of a king within the western European concept of exercising power in the High Middle Ages.
Dukes, the reminiscence of the patrician dignity. The role and position of dukes in exercising power. The concept of Christian dukes' solidarity as defenders of the faith.

4.The emperor of the Western World in terms of Frankish-Saxon doctrine of exercising power of the High Middle Ages


1.The emperor of the Romans. The Emperor of the Saxons


The Greek East and Rome attitude towards Saint Peter and Paul. The lingual division in the centuries between the 3rd and 9th and its consequences. The achievements of East and West regarding state and secular doctrines. Muslims being a serious threat to the Christian faith in the 8th century.

Charlemagne's political goals at the beginning of the 9th century in the relations with the Eastern Empire.

Saxons – Saint Maurices knights – first crusaders.

The cult of saint martyrs of Theban Legion headed by Saint Maurice. The significance of the battle of Lechfeld from the year 955 as the biggest military success of the entire empire in the 10th century. The consequences of the imperial coronation of Otto I and the fact that he used the title Imperator Romanorum, which meant the title of the Roman emperor.

1.4.4.2. Roman emperor within the meaning of Otto III's ideology. Benedictines

The order, contrary to Benedictine himself was creating the ideology of exercising power. The views of Adso of Montier-en-Der included in the work called Epistole Adsonis ad Gerbergam reginam de ortu et tempore Antichristi in the years 949-951.

The Saxon doctrine of messianism. Promoting the doctrine of ecumenical live (Christian community) grew on the basis of the New Testament Gospel. Two contradictory ideologies so-called the doctrine of cenobitic monasticism and eremitism. The Order of Saint Benedictine concentrated and transformed within itself the ideology of evangelical messianism. The Emperor Otto III became one of the greatest visionaries of the medieval world.

5.Democracy


1.Tribal democracy


The institution proclaiming a ruler. The transformation of direct democracy model into indirect democracy

2.Military communes


The form of military democracy, called a military commune as a form of exercising power.


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