ksiazka A historical outline of political and legal doctrines.
Historia doktryn politycznych i prawnych.

Chapter I - An introduction to the State and political doctrines. Theory of money and taxation.

Author: Grzegorz Kazimierz Walkowski
Carrier: file .pdf
Number of sides: 12

Free version. All rights reserved. No parts of this publication may be reproduced or transmited in any form or by any means, electronic or the others without the permision of Author or Publisher. Copyright Grzegorz Kazimierz Walkowski 2012

State and Political Doctrines

Monetary Theory and Taxation

When formalized in terms of the notional relationship between people, based upon the voluntarily or compulsory resignation of the individual from some rights providing unlimited freedom, it is called a State. Ideally understood, personal freedom allows for existence in an unprocessed environment and in isolation from relationships with other people. The ideal of 'freedom' in which the individual has no challenges to meet inevitably leads to apathy. In practice the individual has an inherent need to engage in social relationships with varying degrees of complexity. The initial impetus for social interaction is prompted by the phenomena caused by social interaction. An individual processing the environment in this way is provided with a motivation to think. In terms of social interaction this motivation enables the processing of information inside the human mind. We call this Philosophy. Conclusions deriving from such an analysis, if they refer to organisms (existences) emanating from consciousness and related to establishing a relationship between them as well as between themselves and specific individuals can be called Political Doctrine. The word political derives from the Greek words polis and polloi. There is a synonymic dependence between the title of a work by Aristotle, The Politics, and the word which came into everyday language for describing specific phenomena. Polis, in Greek means a human settlement or urban community in which people unite in order live closer together and thereby feel safer in a polis than outside it, and this word shares the same root as the Greek word for a multitude of people, the polloi

The Politics of Aristotle includes a way to synthetic thinking about the phenomena of the polis and stays in close relationship to creative contradictions and at the same time is a continuation of many of the conceptual motifs of Plato found in his Republic (loosely translated from its Greek title Politeia as philosophy against the multitude).

This is how political or state theory began as a counterbalance to the social consequences of social interaction. Plato, following on from Socrates, tried to create a positive philosophy which would be inclusive of an individual's social and communal existence. Aristotle, possessing Plato's works, also created doctrines based upon familiar real events (which he also creatively synthesized in his work The Politics) changing them in such a way as to make them appear universal.

It is supposed that they fulfilled their function due possibly to the research method he invented after processing them in terms of the phenomenological frames of his mind.

Many people who read Aristotle think that his opinions are universal and therefore distinct from concrete phenomena. However, this is not the case. To be more specific, each political doctrine is created on the basis of real observations of events and therefore often follows factual cases.

Initially the existence of the State was not connected with the existence of the Law, it was considered as something functioning alongside. The State did not require apparent laws since the laws which were known referred to the social and economic relationships of a specific community and therefore were considered to be satisfactory.

With time it was noticed that some laws were better and more beneficial for the existence of the State whilst the others were less efficient. This observation was connected with a mechanism which was characterized by the feedback which appeared under the notion of political and legal doctrines, by the similarity and connectivity of political and legal doctrines.

With the passing of time the law was divided into public and private areas. The former referred to systemic issues which were the basic ones for the existence of the state and its implementation between different states. The latter regulated the relationships of a specific state and after some time it gained support and an importance almost equivalent to public law in such a way that today we can talk about the competitiveness of both legal orders. In reality behind this apparent equivalence of relationships in international public law was not so visible in the past.

Classical knowledge of the Law (history of the Law) the research direction shaped by historical tradition – the history of political and legal doctrines, justification of which has been presented by some authors in more or less complex ways in various works based upon various methods of historical analysis. Such an attitude was essential and justified by the great lack of historical output even for a civilized continent such as Europe where Science until the end of the 18th century did not carry out any systematic research work in terms of the law.

A historical perspective is essential. First of all, from this viewpoint the fate of both the contemporary and ancient worlds from the perspective of natural and economic phenomena cannot be separated from factual events and more significantly cannot be separated from doctrinal thought. At the beginning of the 20th century mankind witnessed an initially unexpected but permanent effect upon natural phenomena in terms of the by now very controversial impact of the emission of greenhouse gases upon the natural environment, and the environmental course of the processes involved (e.g. the absorption of radiated heat by cold oceanic currents etc.). Contemporary man has changed the environment something which could not have be done by the people of previous epochs who, although they wanted to, were unable to undertake multi-directional analysis.

Secondly, in accordance with the Theory of Systems, a few trends can be differentiated by the increased number of information processing events. The information used is the same as that used in Economics, trends and seasons can be noted and discounted in the basic analysis of information. Such an approach means that the phenomena requiring a solution are independent from their historical setting and in realty it is enough to cross the critical point of access to information. Moreover, if such information is identical to the number of solutions it is easier to grasp general phenomena. However, the increased risk of mistaken solutions can be corrected by the historical context.

In such circumstances history in the form of the available sources of information, or a description of those sources. establishes on the basis of a small, repeated and verified number of information entries the idea of information thereby by finding a new justification for the existence of the Old School we cannot avoid the analysis of political and legal doctrines in their historical context.

Searches in this area should be precise and go further than just political doctrines due to the references to other instruments of legal theory – such as monetary theory under which the defining process of the functional relationship by introducing the means of payment as the one implementing the apparent principle of the equivalence of services.

I shall explain what this sentence means.

Money is used as a substitute for the actual equivalence of services. If one party specifies the currency for a specific activity in pounds sterling, the second one in Nigerian dollars, or any other currency of a banana republic, choosing the latter makes the contract not equivalent since we can mostly buy bananas with this currency. We can buy everything in the world with pounds sterling.

If the transaction was not equivalent with the use of money then it could be made so with the value agreed as goods – e.g. five sheep for one virgin, as is sometimes done in some primitive societies, or with the use of natural goods without economic purpose – e.g. mussels of pearls. However, since after some time a shells breaks, a sheep dies, and a virgin is no longer a virgin there is a separation between equivalence and the services provided after some time, and the single measurement comes from durable goods with strong resistance to damage and acquired with difficulty. Such a commodity could be for example titanium which is difficult to extract since extracting one kilo of titanium requires processing a few thousand tonnes of river mud. This metal being resistant to the impact of low temperatures equally does not show resistance to high temperatures and that is why it is not resistant to damage.

The ideal resource material, able to stay resistant and be measured in terms of the equivalence of services would be platinum since it is similar to silver and therefore it would be easy to substitute it with silver in terms of economic turnover. Due to these reasons a common measurement of the equivalence of services is soft gold which includes a high percentage of the pure element. (it gets softer as it gets purer and its purity can be assessed simply by biting into it).

Tax theory refers to monetary theory as distinct from the theory of the equivalence of exchange. With these issues we discuss “The System of Polish Tax Law in Practice” which according to commonly held theory I confirm the opinion that in almost every science tax is not an equivalent benefit.

Such a attitude – one side of the theory of money – can be connected to the statement that monetary theory demonstrates a relationship to the equivalence of the exchange of goods and that taxation theory demonstrates a negative relationship.

Therefore, it can be stated that monetary and tax theories constitute two, however within the same entity which in fact does not participate in the exchange of goods. The two different methods of controlling the exchange of goods when money is used to protect the equivalence of exchange, I am sorry – money proves the equivalence of exchange, the tax hits, levels this principle, confirming the lack of equivalence. Maybe the true feature of taxation is its participation in the exchange of goods. If it is truly a non-equivalent “participant” of the turnover of goods it can mean separation of the idea of tax from this turnover.

What do the political doctrines have in common with the abovementioned?

Still the only true and permanent guarantee for the implementation of the equivalence of exchange is provided by unique metals which means ones that fulfill the following criteria - they are difficult to obtain and to loose. Moreover, they have a specific economic function, a separate one for each of them. The history of human civilization demonstrates the primary use of four basic metals: copper, iron, silver and gold. The truth of this statement is upheld in the present in macro-economic terms, except for moving silver into a similar position as other metals essential for speeding up certain processes, including the preservation of energy, behind metals such as gallium or columbium which due to their small amounts on our planet are not able to replace gold in its treasaurical (accumulation) function deriving from the history of monetary relationships.

The mutual relationship of the values of gold with silver are extremely controversial. Ancient historical sources– according to the Papyrus of Bulak – show the relationship of the value of gold to silver as 1 to 1.7. A highly controversial historical discrepancy of the value of gold and silver according to Forbes in the Middle Ages amounted was 1 to 3 and this probably resulted from the fact that silver was used in the production of coins which placed it in greater demand. The quantity of silver in use in ancient economies is unknown. It can be assumed that the Western Roman Empire (from this Empire the history of doctrines began) from mines operating in Spain was probably producing between 200- 300 tonnes of silver each year. However, it is also possible that the annual average in the longer historical period decreased to below 100 tonnes, which in a period of 100 years gives a weight of approximately 30000 tonnes but not less than 10000 tonnes. Silver being present in the economy on a scale to gold of 3 to 1 could almost have ideally been used as the main component for coins, and it did not lose this function in practice until the 19th century. In the Middle Ages the scale of forgery by adulterating the of the weight of the silver was enormous, and according to tradition – we have the story of a Polish duke – Mieszko Stary (12th century) in which the main money forgers were the Jewish minters.

The average annual weight of silver essential to maintain the Roman Army.

In early times prior to the loss of the Western Roman Empire – the caesar Septimus Severus (145/146 – 211) implemented monetary reform by changing the percentage of silver in a basic coin (the Roman denarius) from approximately 75% to approximately 50% of it weight. Since due to historically complicated events the Roman denarius prior to the reform of Severus weighted about 3.43 gram (following the reforms of Nero in the 1st century AD before which it had weighed 3.93 gram. In this way Nero devalued the currency by about 10.5% in relation to the times of Augustus). Before his reforms the amount of silver in one denarius amounted not less than 3 grams, after his reform it amounted to 2 grams. As it can be seen Severus after some 150 years of relative currency stability began a process of devaluation which has culminated in the present day in which the currency used has no intrinsic value in relation to its face value. It should be noticed without deviating from the issue concerning the amount of metal circulating in an economy that the devaluation of money, calculated in terms of a highly equivalent way of establishing the conditions of goods exchange, which is the weight of metals, can be connected in the proportion of 1/10 for each 50 years. For each 50 years – without cheating which means without breaking the principle of the equivalence of services. If, due to the abovementioned, devaluation of the currency can be reduced to a specific proportion as 1 percent for every 5 years than we will receive other than from modern American studies the degree of “natural” inflation which means its connection to the proportional increase of the value of money (understood also as a negative value) to the depreciation of the value of the means of payment.

Coming back to the issue of the value of silver which was essential for maintaining the army of the Roman Empire.

After the “reforms” of Domitian (died in 96) legalizing the extraordinary expectations of the army concerning income in a time of peace, the incomes of legionaries (with their specific division into legions) increased by 1 . Therefore, for the basic units, the legionaries, it amounted to approximately 250 Roman denarii. besides which, not less than 5% of the army constituted of the cavalry whose cost was three times higher than the basic units and comparable with the cost of keeping the navy.

Taking into account the probable cost of maintaining the entire army of the Roman Empire in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th centuries A.D. we can determine that the army consisted of not less than 250 thousand soldiers, at a level of approximately 2 to 4 thousand tonnes of silver per year.

Taking into consideration the mining potential of the entire Empire at the disposition of the Caesars – after the upkeep of the army no more than 2,500 tonnes of silver was left which gives a real picture of the investment possibilities of the Empire from the 2nd to 5th centuries, explaining at the same time the sources of the absorption of silver within the entire Empire. It is difficult to judge whether the number of legionaries and other military units exceeded the current estimate, although there are rather improbable estimates that the Roman army at the beginning of the fall of the Roman Empire amounted to or exceeded 500 thousand people in total, inclusive of the entire administrative and military apparatus of the Empire. If it was expressed in terms of ores the price for keeping the army together with its administration would double which would justify the appropriateness of the statement concerning the necessity of the devaluation of the Roman coin based on silver. It could be possible to justify the statement that devaluation of the Roman currency was closely and directly connected to the expense of keeping the army, and that the real cost of devaluation connected with gaining noble metals amounted to approximately 1% per year, simultaneously keeping within the general economic processes. Since the abovementioned observations are factual, financing the Roman army would have been inextricably interlinked to obtaining natural resources in the form of noble metals connecting the principle of the equivalence of the exchange of goods .

Tax, according to all theorists being a totally nonequivalent liability cannot be the measurement for equivalence.

With the increase in the number of transactions the demand for gold increases. If for one gram of gold we can acquire specific wealth then only a stable amount of gold can be compared to a stable amount of wealth. The amount of gold can be directly connected to the amount of wealth, however, the only variable is time. If in one unit of time the amount of wealth remains in a specific relationship to the amount of gold then there is no disturbance in the equivalence principle. The economies of antiquity maintained this proportionality more often than contemporary economies due to specific creative abilities. The specific long-term principle of equivalence of the exchange of wealth into gold was shaped if the increase of gold stayed in specific proportion to the increase of wealth.

On the other hand as we can see with the example of Spain which exported a great amount of precious metals (mainly silver) to Europe after the colonization of South America introduced a ban on the importation of gold. Interestingly this was because due to the huge amounts of gold which had hitherto be imported into the country it had become less valuable as as a means of exchange. We can conclude then that the measurement of the value of the equivalence of goods should not in principle be treated as wealth since it is not a measurement of value anymore. Such overproduction of silver which began in the 15th and 16th centuries fulfilled the needs of Europe till the beginning of the 20th century – specifically until the outbreak of the First World War when the European states being embroiled in war but used to stability and parity in silver for the main European currencies,, issued military bonds of astronomical value through their central banks which apart from Great Britain forced all other countries after the end of the First World War to withdraw from the real parity of value to silver, although the main and official causes were the new economic policies of the USA aimed at avoiding the effects of the Wall Street Crash of 1929. (In order to demonstrate an underlying truth concerning European history we cannot remain silent about the fact that it is estimated that in the period preceding the discovery of a new passage to India, lasting until the second half of the 15th century, the economic trend in Central Europe saw the production of silver increase probably fivefold (by comparison to the first twenty five years of 15th century). This could have removed gold from the principle of universal measurement for the equivalence of exchange. The rare inflow of gold from the Spanish maritime colonies (at a steady pace of approximately 1 to 10 tonnes per year) gave to Europe a great amount of gold in the 16th century. Therefore, there were many golden coins in common circulation in the 16th and 17th centuries. Spanish isolationism in relationship to the turnover of gold could not be dangerous in such circumstances for a European economic growth based upon the principle of the equivalence of exchange of noble metals, due to the fact that the Spanish financed specific military ventures abroad (e.g. the religious wars in France) which were equal to the transfer of gold from Spain to all of Europe). This feature referring to money in terms of the international turnover of money led to the destabilization of world’s economy at the beginning of the 90’s which was twenty years after the final resignation of parity in gold a basic world currency – the American dollar. Without separating the function of the measurement from the function of goods after at least twenty years the American government in secrecy from its allies started to print “empty” money which ended up with crisis in 2008 which according to forecasts has not yet reached its perigee. In what way is it connected with taxes?

In my opinion there is one more possibility that taxation in a modern model of money management which supports the function of keeping up the appearance of the equivalence of money both by financing from taxation the ventures which maintain this trend of thinking as well as by “additional guarantee” for keeping up the appearance of the function of the equivalence of money – a guarantee of the solvency the State.

As there were differences in the specific unit of time in proportion to the acquisition of gold – e.g. by conquest or new mines, whilst on the other hand by introducing new goods to the turnover or existing goods but in greater quantities, the principle of the equivalence of the exchange of goods was not a stable factor for balancing the economy. Apart from this there were problems with the transfer of goods and gold which led to the necessity of introducing instead of a viable method a conventional method as a means of measuring the equivalence of liabilities.

In this way money was born which with the use of numerous instruments could match updated prevailing trends, or the lack gold production, or even the non-production of any goods. Money ultimately appeared on a massive scale but initially only locally in the 8th century BC and it was always directly connected with the metallic content of the coin. Separating the function of money from the coin took place probably from the 11th to 13th centuries but I will describe this process later. (Doctrinal history was not accidentally started at the moment when the Western Roman Empire collapsed. When thinking about the relationship of gold to taxation and the existence of the State it should be considered as to whether the reason for the collapse of the Empire was due to a lack of noble metals following the removal of the treasury to Constantinople).

In general this is monetary theory presented in conjunction with the history of political and legal doctrines. According to the abovementioned assumptions – money implements specific functions connected to the implementation of the apparent relationship of the exchange of goods by grasping the prevailing trends relating to the principle of equivalence.

Tax is a nonequivalent phenomenon though not to all events, but it is nonequivalent to the course of the exchange of goods.

According to the principles of the Calculus of Sentences the abovementioned generalizations can be described as a broad statement of taxation being a nonequivalent means of the exchange of goods which remains in a relationship to the exchange of goods.

However, there is one question – in what kind of relationship then if not in equivalence?

An analysis of the relationship between taxation, monetary theory, State systems and the creation of prevailing opinions concerning their overlapping nature can play a particular role in research by allowing it to highlight specific dependencies and transparency in the historical development of political and legal doctrines which were frequently interrelated. Specific tools for making such a statement can also be provided by the methodology of logical research.

By connecting doctrines with broadly rooted methodological assumptions we can achieve specific solutions in the research sphere:

Firstly, commonly accepted tools for information processing.

Secondly, we can connect to the trend of historical analysis the more or less distant disciplines of knowledge other than the law.

Finally, the opinions presented above do not damage empirical research they broaden it.

Taking into consideration all these assumptions it is possible to state that in the sense of the logics of the Calculus of Predicates that taxes do not fulfill the principle of the equivalence of the exchange of goods. Secondly expressed in terms of monetary theory they remain in a relationship to the purpose of the received nonequivalent liabilities for maintaining an apparent and unstable relationship to the principle of equivalence with the process of the exchange of goods (by monetary means) and such activities can be performed only be accepting the assumption of an open set of solutions stating that the State implementing tax instruments protects – as a guarantee of the durability and conventional equivalence of the exchange of goods by monetary means – the true principle of the equivalence of the exchange of goods.

These issues are not simple.

Accessorily it can be noted that the Law being an instrument of the behavior of the principle of equivalence of liabilities (maybe the only? apparent one) is involved in fulfilling the function of the State to protect the principle itself. In particular, the State does not protect the entire principle but only the effect, and maybe the appearance, of this principle because in the name of the protection of the principle of equivalence of liability it does not obey this principle itself.

What is going on here?

The State takes nonequivalent (taxable) profits by preserving the principle of the equivalence of the exchange of goods, implementing in this specific aim a tax which is based upon some assumptions of monetary theory, which means it plays with the equivalence of the real world parity of the exchange of goods.

It is worth considering such a statement, that it is possible to connect the principles of Economics (the exchange of goods) with the principles of the Law (an acceptance of the separation of the value of money from gold) with the principles of the logics of the Calculus of Sentences (the abovementioned theory). All these issues are conceptually connected with political doctrines by incorporating the triangular set of connections of state and legal theory in the specific form of political and legal doctrines, monetary theory, and tools of logical analysis.

It was not easy to present some of the details of this lecture since it was a case of presenting elementary assumptions, and therefore I am working through selected thoughts and trying to guide the reader into a specific way of perceiving the world.

From the point of view of political and legal doctrines in what way is an opinion about taxes different from an opinion about taxes as specific group and diverse concrete theories?

The main differentiating motives are issues connected with the place and the role of taxation in organizing and financing the State apparatus as well the State itself.

It seems to be obvious that the creators of doctrines do not pay attention to social reactions or to the financial consequences of taxation. Taxation, when it exists, is a certainty.

It is true that tangible taxes exist somewhere but only almost with an abstract existence. Taxes in political doctrines exist only in small parts of reality. This is simple doctrinairism. Political and legal doctrines specify the frames of cooperation and results for various products of State, Legislative, Executive and Court power, marginalizing and even removing from the scope of analysis the functional social and economic roles of taxation. It is obvious that such doctrinal assumptions cannot win with time, verification of the practical existence of the system as a separate to the State apparatus from the localized one – the existence of power – from the sources of finance which leads to forgetting that taxation maintains the existence of the authorities, and that by using taxes authority is obliged to maintain the economy or human activity, at a level that is higher than the minimal payment for subsistence within a particular organized community.

This is a little different in cases when political doctrines enter into the sphere of specific systemic solutions based upon a specific territorial example. In such a situation they should be called State doctrine since they constitute one element of political doctrine.

It is difficult to say what causes taxes to be marginalized in this segment of power, however, it is an indisputable fact. I do not want to enter into the details although I should, but in my opinion there are two phenomena which have an impact upon this process in terms of methodology. First of all, in the course of numerous observations of phenomena assisting science we cannot neglect the issue of the specific preferences of some elements of the academic world which are without any doubt conditioned both ideologically and financially. Finally, this culminates in the existence of specific financial and ideological backups of specific academic trends, particularly the humanities, which can have a permanent impact upon the awareness of those who are responsible for promoting cultural issues in time which means the intelligence. The second group of events implicating the method of perceiving the past, including tax doctrines resulting from political issues, is a lack of awareness of the sources which actually finance academic research. Today, in particular when the correctness of a researcher's work is determined by the academic world we do not take into account the source of their funding. Not having – in most part – an awareness of the interrelationship of their funding with society in general, not only abstractly but also in concrete terms as the product of the efforts of thousands of people who are obliged to fund them in terms of the taxes they pay but do not feel connected to the opinions of specific social groups, who themselves are convinced that pure objectivism is preferable to socially derived objective opinion. The world understood in this way can be manipulate? by political opinion. In a strictly defined sense, the objective academic world loses its relationship with the social, cultural and economic causes which are in the process of creating a specific civilization. At the same time, the psyche of many academics can be compared to psyche of infants.

Very often they are narcissistic personalities, immature, never confronted with current challenges not only of the everyday world but also with social processes and the processes of performing power. Therefore, academics suffer from a lack of connection between the Real, including the financial course of social scientific perspectives, which connects doctrinal opinions to detailed social and economic disciplines within a specific historical time-frame.

Tax theories divorced from political and legal doctrines aim at specifying the role of taxation in the policy of financing both the State apparatus (the apparatus of power) and the implementation of specific social and political tasks, even economic ones (although there are many controversies here). Apart from that, specific tax theories having their source in monetary theory aim at emphasizing their role in the law of public finances only because this appeared at a specific historical moment as a tool for regulating social and political relationships.

In this sense, in terms of pointing out the role of taxation to the existence of the power, political and legal doctrines play a highly theoretical role, maybe over theoretical, in the field of knowledge.

Due to historical conditioning we cannot omit the impact which the doctrines had upon the specific systemic role of the self-financing of the power apparatus derived from compulsory income. Maybe this trend of thinking is the most effective in order to understand the relationship of political, systemic and legal doctrines to the tax system's construction of assumptions. Taxes are treated primarily as sources for maintaining the apparatus of power. In this context it should be noted that tax was initially a tribute, a fee, a levy for the power existing in a specific territory.

However, we can also justify a contradictory statement – political and legal doctrines over a long period of time do not say anything about the role of taxation since the organisms of public power pre-existed it.

We cannot exclude such a solution. However, if we get rid of the role of the current understanding of the role of tax in financing the apparatus of power then we will have another problem – from what sources if not taxation will the apparatus of power be financed?

It should be also mentioned that political and legal doctrines apparently omit issues connected to taxation since nobody who is in a healthy state of mind would claim that power will earn by itself. Doctrinaires who not being linked to a real, simple life connected to the environment aim at an area of pure idealism and produce opinions which are far too theoretical.

It is essential here in this short but slightly complicated introduction to demonstrate that modern political and legal doctrines, without any exceptions for their development, begin when the power of a monarchy disappears and when the need appears to introduce efficient mechanisms for governing and financing non-monarchical expenses. Only the separation of the apparatus of power from properties, royal or aristocratic ones, forced the connection of the state organism to issues linked to financing it from this or that source other than from the personal property of the monarch which also meant from the participants of the state's existence and the implementation of methods of taxation.

In order to present the historical background of a specific set of opinions concerning power as an organizational system, and the sense of this power, its historical conditioning over the last few centuries in Europe should be analyzed.

As the main thought presented a priori we should take into consideration the fact that power in terms of its original form included all types of obedience –personal, material and spiritual and was an absolute power. The person who had it was the lord of life and death for all subordinates.

The bigger the scope in terms of territory and demography of a specific monarch, the greater the pressure on the person possessing that power to share it with subordinates. This was due to the fact that an absolute monarch cannot be multidimensional, govern and give orders in numerous places simultaneously. Therefore, he had to learn how to share power in such a way that the subordinates did not want to take over this power and performed his orders properly without plotting to overthrow him.

Whilst sharing power the most important thing was to discover its resistance, scope and dependence.

In this way doctrines of power were born. The necessity of a unitary existence for the organism of power was noted. Such doctrines were later called the political doctrines and connected the state with specific social solutions in a form of the Law. Later they became political and legal doctrines.

Contemporary Europe would not exist without the Greek philosophers and the might of the Roman Empire. Moreover, there would not be numerous economically conditioned trends, natural, religious, social, and ideological phenomena. Until today all these issues have made Europe the main leader of doctrinal trends both in international policy as well as for the specific pattern of implementation for systemic and generally social relationships, although many people say this dominance shall one day end.

Let us briefly travel in space and time.

From the perspective of the material collected for this work this is a precise and short presentation of the main trends of the impact of economic, natural and social events which specify a view of the past in our continent from a perspective not shorter than fifteen hundred years. This will allow many to understand the course of the basic historical events occurring in this part of the world.

Now a few words about the implemented notional apparatus.

Doctrine is a set of opinions defining and describing a phenomenon. being at the same time an instrument for the understanding of a specific problem.

The means of governing is a conceptual system of the performance of power.

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